What is meant by the term gender - in what ways might the concept of gender be viewed as relevant to your field of study?
According to Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), The basic definition of representation within the media is our how media, such as television, film, and books, portray certain types of people or communities. Some groups are underrepresented in most Western media. They include women, people of colour, people with a range of body shapes and types, people of non-Christian religions, and differently-abled people. There has been a steady increase in diversity in media, but progress has been extended and slow. How we use representation within the media is outlined within its definition. Representation is the way we show everyday events form Film and television, magazines, people, wildlife, and our communities of mixed races. It is a dominant term, and we manipulate it accordingly to show meaning.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Cited:
"Strong and positive representations can help fight and break down stereotypes that can be detrimental to individuals and limiting to society."
Showing that we can inspire people with the way we use media within society. It is the way we see and interpret the representation of the media. Particularly the way we show Western Media and religion as a tool for political motives. An example of this is in the types of magazines available and how they show gender as an everyday tool for storytelling.
Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), Cited:
‘gender should not be confused with sex: gender is a social construction, whereas sex is biological.’
Analysis of the above statement highlights that sex is a form of gender, however, the definition of gender is the state of being male or female. Our representations of gender in today’s social trends towards females has been passive submissive quite often emotional people. Whereas how we see males, today societies are more active dominant strong and thoughtful. From this, we can now challenge the dominant representations. For us to avoid being subjective in this, we must use a quantitative technique. An excellent example of this is from a is from a magazine called ‘Nuts’ where 170 representations within this magazine were female. This rather explicit magazine is quite dominant with partially naked females. This magazine is therefore aimed at the male population whereas, another magazine called ‘More’ show 86 representations of males. Within this only 10% partially naked. In conclusion, the quantitative technique used to analyse both these magazines highlights how we can challenge such representations within the media. Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190-193).
The purpose of this essay is to argue the above quantitative technique concerning limitation, and it does not give meaning. The difference between the two magazines clearly shows that there are far more topless women represented the male magazine. Analysis of both magazines concludes a clear difference in how we see genders within the media. How male and females are represented within the magazines is quite evident. A male celebrity in one magazine advertising some deodorants he is seen looking directly at the photographer, with an almost frowned expression. However, in the Nuts magazine, there is a picture of a partially naked female who has a lovely smile and head slightly tilted to one side. This is done to draw the male reader to looking closer at the image. Berger (1972).
In conclusion, we can see that the male been represented in this way is almost interrogating the female reader. Compared to the nuts magazine it is showing the male reader that the female is available.
Burger (1972) as cited:
‘characterizes the way genders are represented as opposed to one another.’
Further reading of magazines and advertisements within them you can see routinely that gender is shown according to stereotypes. It’s quite clear to see that women are shown as feminine with a sexual appeal. Males, however, are advertised in situations of dominance.
Dyer, Richard (1993), Argued that women are shown within the media as figures who are less dominant where males were shown to be more powerful and dominant. Within the media, we now see images of women dominantly showing their feminist side. Within a magazine selling products such as perfume, you are more likely to see a model partially naked showing a more sexual side while advertising the perfume. Over the years, we no longer react to the sexism; however, such scenes in public places is ignored. In conclusion, media representation is presented in many ways to capture the audience. In this case of the magazines, we explicitly use gender as a tool to aid the representation and tell a story we want the audience to engage with. Wildlife Media is represented in a typical linear way. YouTube documentary was quite biased towards false representations within the media. The storytelling was not fake, and the wildlife was real, the sound effects make it life like to the audience.
DSLR guide (2018), shows us how representations are manipulated and fake when it comes to wildlife media documentaries. One can argue the point that all wildlife programs recorded in the wild, however, regards to sound audio that we listen to has been generated. This recreation is not fake; it is a more open way of storytelling. By encapsulating the audience, we can show wildlife in their natural habitats without disturbances. In the studio, all documentaries mixed with Foley and ADR sounds to capture the attention of the audience. However, storytelling has been a way of misleading the audience. DSLR guide (2018), Further opens a perception of wildlife misrepresentation. In the documentary, the manipulation is dramatic with the action of the sharks as they have been made to be more violent through feeding. Additional studio sounds added, and we now have a high-octane documentary. It is indeed not fake, and we must tell a story and have the audience engage with the action as it happens. The more dramatic or slow the media is represented, tells the story as we see it unfold.
Concluding that Fake Nature illustrates to the audience the complex issues relating to wildlife representation, and Storytellers are there to bring the scenes together for the audience. They indeed are not fake, and the action is real. One agrees that sometimes we enhance a documentary to be more dramatic rather than showing an everyday scene. Nearly all sounds are added later in the studio by recreating exact perfect frames for the audience. It is true we cannot interfere with live nature; however, we can certainly match the sounds with technology. In return, this captures the eye and attention of the audiences who then follow the series with great anticipation.
As detailed by Digg.com (2018), Wildlife documentaries such as blue planet Earth 2 as shown with a cinematic view. Changes within high definition from HD to ultra HD has now given as the technology to digitize our representations. We can now use camera movements to follow wildlife. In this way, we can now bring real-life images to the viewer. Introducing David Attenborough as a genre overlay brings wildlife documentaries to life. As to as scammers now got smaller and more compact we can now get closer to wildlife and obtain media footage for cinematic representation. Heli gimbals allow us to film animals from a long, long distance away without disturbing their habitat. Now where bringing real-life nature to the screen. Heli gimbals mounted on helicopters with a significant way forward for the BBC. Utilizing Foley and ADR studios we can now re-enhance the sound to match the media that we have captured. Many people argue that this is fake, however, the wildlife is real, but we have the time to overlay the sounds in a more controlled environment without disturbing the wildlife. In conclusion, we now use representation to relate how that wildlife exists in the natural world. Large wildlife hunting in South Africa can now be shown on documentaries bringing reality TV to the viewer. Gimbals also allow us to use hand-held cameras which allow us to improve our cinematic views. Representation is the capture the image and the viewer, emotionally storytelling has now advanced to a new era.
An excellent example by Digg.com (2018), shows how digital cameras for wildlife documentaries Is used to recreate slow motion media. As seen in the planet Earth 2, there was a scene in Ecuador showing hummingbirds. Viewers in the UK considered the media footage is fake and recreated by computer graphics. This was certainly not the case as we use slow motion filmmaking to slow the hummingbirds down. Viewers could now watch real wildlife in a slower format. Planet Earth 2, was recreated to connect with all viewers of all ages. In return, slow-motion filmmaking certainly worked for this documentary representation of flora and fauna and now shown in a way we can never see before in real life. Bringing storytelling into a new era.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Available at:
https://arabfilminstitute.org/what-exactly-is-media-representation-anyway/ (Accessed: 10 Dec 2018).
Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing, London and Harmondsworth: BBC and Penguin. Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/planet-earth-technology (Accessed 12 Dec 2018).
Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/slow-motion-planet-earth-nature-documentaries (Accessed 13 Dec 2018).
DSLR guide (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/how-fake-are-nature-documentaries (Accessed 1 Dec 2018).
Dyer, Richard (1993) A Matter of Images, London: British Film Institute.
Nick Lacey (2009) Image and representation key concepts in media studies. Hampshire: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Clark, C. E. (2017).
The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Clark, C. E. (2017).
The artifact represents globalization and culture issues that developed after the war in 1945. Street photography was at the heart of worldwide scrutiny and political outrage from the rights over images. The dissemination behind this powerful image has led to the regulation of media artifacts that we have today. The global culture of photography is now a major part of our everyday media. Clark, C. E. (2017). The dissemination behind this powerful image has led to the regulation of media artifacts that we have today. The global culture of photography is now a major part of our everyday media. Clark, C. E. (2017). Early photographers always take 2 images, retain one and the other was published. Image 1 was published in April 1953.
Catherine E. Clarke a professor of french studies published many articles surrounding the history of France and its globalization of photography. With a Genre of Street Photography certainly prompted political propaganda. Who has the rights over the images was certainly under large scrutiny? The dissemination of the artifacts was debated by French law and changes within the cultural representations and rights to ownership of artifacts. Gendreau, (1999).
The political debate extended for many years and the courts would favor an artistic artifact over an industrial one. Nesbit, (1987). In conclusion of both the authors on the artifact rights was largely debated in court and rather bias towards the street photographers the image rights and ownership are implicit to the artefact. Images that were artistic were aloud rather than industrial ones. There were certainly some bias political motives behind the court decisions.
The plot has continued over the years with hostility clearly demonstrated within the courts towards photography on the street. Regulations regarding the use of artifacts have changed globally with cultural impacts. Barbas, (2015). The artifact Fig 1 is "a linear narrative" as it shows the historical conflict surrounding the use of street photography. The artefact is referenced in many media contexts over many years with distinctive flashbacks to the rights over an artifact.
What is striking about the media artefact is that it shows vernacular photography. From the post war period showing everyday life. As we can see it’s a black and white artifact common for this era which changed to. The artifact shows a paparazzi style image showing a lady walking down the street. With no expression, possibly without her consent. The artifact is embraced within the frame which is typical for this type of genre.
In conclusion, the laws have changed regarding the rights of images. Early French Law has shown the political uproar towards image rights. Since 1999, the new rulings have globally favored the rights to ownership as long as they could prove the artifact is indeed artistic or commercial. Giving the way for paparazzi-style photography that we see so much of today. Globally, photography is now a very powerful media representation and continues to be scrutinized within the nations.
Batchen G (2009) Seeing and saying: A response to ‘Incongruous Images’. History and Theory 48(4): 26–33.
Clark, C. E. (2017) The Commercial Street Photographer: The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Journal of Visual Culture, 16(2), 225–252. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412917716482 (Accessed 24 Nov. 2018).
Figure 1. Anonymous, dated 17 April 1953. 13.9 by 8.9cm. Image courtesy of Seconde Vague Productions, Marseille.
Gendreau, Y. (1999) France. In: Gendreau Y, Nordemann A, Oesch R (eds) Copyright and Photographs: An International Survey. London: Kluwer Law International, 117–33.
Nesbit M (1987) What was an author? Yale French Studies 73: 229–57.
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