What is meant by the term gender - in what ways might the concept of gender be viewed as relevant to your field of study?
According to Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), The basic definition of representation within the media is our how media, such as television, film, and books, portray certain types of people or communities. Some groups are underrepresented in most Western media. They include women, people of colour, people with a range of body shapes and types, people of non-Christian religions, and differently-abled people. There has been a steady increase in diversity in media, but progress has been extended and slow. How we use representation within the media is outlined within its definition. Representation is the way we show everyday events form Film and television, magazines, people, wildlife, and our communities of mixed races. It is a dominant term, and we manipulate it accordingly to show meaning.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Cited:
"Strong and positive representations can help fight and break down stereotypes that can be detrimental to individuals and limiting to society."
Showing that we can inspire people with the way we use media within society. It is the way we see and interpret the representation of the media. Particularly the way we show Western Media and religion as a tool for political motives. An example of this is in the types of magazines available and how they show gender as an everyday tool for storytelling.
Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), Cited:
‘gender should not be confused with sex: gender is a social construction, whereas sex is biological.’
Analysis of the above statement highlights that sex is a form of gender, however, the definition of gender is the state of being male or female. Our representations of gender in today’s social trends towards females has been passive submissive quite often emotional people. Whereas how we see males, today societies are more active dominant strong and thoughtful. From this, we can now challenge the dominant representations. For us to avoid being subjective in this, we must use a quantitative technique. An excellent example of this is from a is from a magazine called ‘Nuts’ where 170 representations within this magazine were female. This rather explicit magazine is quite dominant with partially naked females. This magazine is therefore aimed at the male population whereas, another magazine called ‘More’ show 86 representations of males. Within this only 10% partially naked. In conclusion, the quantitative technique used to analyse both these magazines highlights how we can challenge such representations within the media. Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190-193).
The purpose of this essay is to argue the above quantitative technique concerning limitation, and it does not give meaning. The difference between the two magazines clearly shows that there are far more topless women represented the male magazine. Analysis of both magazines concludes a clear difference in how we see genders within the media. How male and females are represented within the magazines is quite evident. A male celebrity in one magazine advertising some deodorants he is seen looking directly at the photographer, with an almost frowned expression. However, in the Nuts magazine, there is a picture of a partially naked female who has a lovely smile and head slightly tilted to one side. This is done to draw the male reader to looking closer at the image. Berger (1972).
In conclusion, we can see that the male been represented in this way is almost interrogating the female reader. Compared to the nuts magazine it is showing the male reader that the female is available.
Burger (1972) as cited:
‘characterizes the way genders are represented as opposed to one another.’
Further reading of magazines and advertisements within them you can see routinely that gender is shown according to stereotypes. It’s quite clear to see that women are shown as feminine with a sexual appeal. Males, however, are advertised in situations of dominance.
Dyer, Richard (1993), Argued that women are shown within the media as figures who are less dominant where males were shown to be more powerful and dominant. Within the media, we now see images of women dominantly showing their feminist side. Within a magazine selling products such as perfume, you are more likely to see a model partially naked showing a more sexual side while advertising the perfume. Over the years, we no longer react to the sexism; however, such scenes in public places is ignored. In conclusion, media representation is presented in many ways to capture the audience. In this case of the magazines, we explicitly use gender as a tool to aid the representation and tell a story we want the audience to engage with. Wildlife Media is represented in a typical linear way. YouTube documentary was quite biased towards false representations within the media. The storytelling was not fake, and the wildlife was real, the sound effects make it life like to the audience.
DSLR guide (2018), shows us how representations are manipulated and fake when it comes to wildlife media documentaries. One can argue the point that all wildlife programs recorded in the wild, however, regards to sound audio that we listen to has been generated. This recreation is not fake; it is a more open way of storytelling. By encapsulating the audience, we can show wildlife in their natural habitats without disturbances. In the studio, all documentaries mixed with Foley and ADR sounds to capture the attention of the audience. However, storytelling has been a way of misleading the audience. DSLR guide (2018), Further opens a perception of wildlife misrepresentation. In the documentary, the manipulation is dramatic with the action of the sharks as they have been made to be more violent through feeding. Additional studio sounds added, and we now have a high-octane documentary. It is indeed not fake, and we must tell a story and have the audience engage with the action as it happens. The more dramatic or slow the media is represented, tells the story as we see it unfold.
Concluding that Fake Nature illustrates to the audience the complex issues relating to wildlife representation, and Storytellers are there to bring the scenes together for the audience. They indeed are not fake, and the action is real. One agrees that sometimes we enhance a documentary to be more dramatic rather than showing an everyday scene. Nearly all sounds are added later in the studio by recreating exact perfect frames for the audience. It is true we cannot interfere with live nature; however, we can certainly match the sounds with technology. In return, this captures the eye and attention of the audiences who then follow the series with great anticipation.
As detailed by Digg.com (2018), Wildlife documentaries such as blue planet Earth 2 as shown with a cinematic view. Changes within high definition from HD to ultra HD has now given as the technology to digitize our representations. We can now use camera movements to follow wildlife. In this way, we can now bring real-life images to the viewer. Introducing David Attenborough as a genre overlay brings wildlife documentaries to life. As to as scammers now got smaller and more compact we can now get closer to wildlife and obtain media footage for cinematic representation. Heli gimbals allow us to film animals from a long, long distance away without disturbing their habitat. Now where bringing real-life nature to the screen. Heli gimbals mounted on helicopters with a significant way forward for the BBC. Utilizing Foley and ADR studios we can now re-enhance the sound to match the media that we have captured. Many people argue that this is fake, however, the wildlife is real, but we have the time to overlay the sounds in a more controlled environment without disturbing the wildlife. In conclusion, we now use representation to relate how that wildlife exists in the natural world. Large wildlife hunting in South Africa can now be shown on documentaries bringing reality TV to the viewer. Gimbals also allow us to use hand-held cameras which allow us to improve our cinematic views. Representation is the capture the image and the viewer, emotionally storytelling has now advanced to a new era.
An excellent example by Digg.com (2018), shows how digital cameras for wildlife documentaries Is used to recreate slow motion media. As seen in the planet Earth 2, there was a scene in Ecuador showing hummingbirds. Viewers in the UK considered the media footage is fake and recreated by computer graphics. This was certainly not the case as we use slow motion filmmaking to slow the hummingbirds down. Viewers could now watch real wildlife in a slower format. Planet Earth 2, was recreated to connect with all viewers of all ages. In return, slow-motion filmmaking certainly worked for this documentary representation of flora and fauna and now shown in a way we can never see before in real life. Bringing storytelling into a new era.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Available at:
https://arabfilminstitute.org/what-exactly-is-media-representation-anyway/ (Accessed: 10 Dec 2018).
Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing, London and Harmondsworth: BBC and Penguin. Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/planet-earth-technology (Accessed 12 Dec 2018).
Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/slow-motion-planet-earth-nature-documentaries (Accessed 13 Dec 2018).
DSLR guide (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/how-fake-are-nature-documentaries (Accessed 1 Dec 2018).
Dyer, Richard (1993) A Matter of Images, London: British Film Institute.
Nick Lacey (2009) Image and representation key concepts in media studies. Hampshire: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Photograph 1a. Martin Pullan (2018). Showing Allonby Beach and a view of the Scottish Coastline. Intertidal estuary with a Type B2 Character Classification.
Allonby Conservation Area
David, et al. (2003), identified that glacial melts formed the Solway Coast and Allonby which is situated off the Cree/Nith Valleys. The Firth locally at this time was full of gritty/jagged glacial rocks which travelled down from the valleys. Historically around 15,000 years ago the sea level would have been 25 metres higher than present day.
Around 7000 years ago the formation of saltmarshes and extensive mudflats were formed. The Solway narrowed as the topography developed in turn; salt resisting flora, shrubs and trees grew. As the sea level receded alder trees developed within the local area. As the years passed by evidence detailed the arrival of willow, oak, birch and alder trees. David, et al. (2003). Appendicies1b. identifies the receding sea levels from the glacial melts.
Historically, around 5000 years ago, the sea level was 10 feet higher than seen today. The area is of great importance as settlers began to uncover various artefacts detailing the existence of communities near the coastal pathway. Over time the sea level has now dropped to its present level. Appendices 1c. Environmental changes have further changed the local area with pebbles, and sediments deposited from the estuary. Many of the Solway Ports require regular dredging of the mud accumulations. On the beach, there are a vast array of coloured pebbles in various sizes. Allonby bay has significant granular granite (Felsic igneous) rocks surrounded by slate from Skiddaw (Metamorphosed sedimentary rock from the Early Ordovician period). Other rock types include Siliceous rocks (igneous), sandstone (sedimentary), and feldspar. David, et al. (2003).
Typically, the rocks located in Allonby are of a typical classification, igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. They come from the mountain regions of the Lake District. Davis, R. V. (1977, p5-7) Further data about this is detailed in appendices 1g, Tables showing the geological data of Allonby Bay. Allenby beach also contains further outcrops of metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Meltwaters of the valleys gradually ground the moving rocks. The sand, silt and pebbles are a mix of sedimentary, metamorphic and volcanic rock. Gravel banks contain various named stones ranging from Nellie, Maston, Pintle and a locally named Hanging Stone. These high deposits are seen scattered along the beach. David, et al. (2003).
Allonby is of a high conservation interest with many types of species located within the area. The role of the protection zone is to protect the area and its marine wildlife. The beach is made up of intertidal sand/mud flats providing ideal habitats for razor clams (Solenidae), piddocks (Pholadidae), shrimp (Caridea), worms (Acanthocephala) and sea snails (Gastropoda). Collins. (2012). According to Land Use Consultants (2010) there is a historic conservation order dating back to 1956, it was classed as an area of natural beauty (AONB). This AONB runs along the raised beaches and intertidal flats up to the Outer Solway Firth. Land Use Consultants (2010)
This seascape estuary is classed within category Type A as it is closer to the sea. With its capsular land masses of mud/sand composition. Running alongside the beach, are the see the dunes and saltmarshes. Extensive wave erosion is evident in this area. Dense pebble strata are noted along the cliff habitats. The seaward edge has a classification of subtype 1a, Intertidal Flats. Appendices 1d.
Land Use Consultants (2010) further highlights Allonby beach AONB, has an extensive estuarine ecosystem ranging from sand/silt composition and vast areas of intertidal flats. High tides cause erosion cycles and deposition of pebbles and waste material from the Irish sea. Most of the mudflats are exposed depending on the tidal path. To the edges of the beach, exist vast landscapes of acidic dune heaths with heather. Allonby Bay is also under a Marine Conservation Zone and protected under government policy.
Policies are in place to ensure the area is safe, healthy and clean. Allonby Bay is of significant interest with the honeycomb worm and mussel beds. The living reef is formed by long sand tubes constructed by the worms. Appendices 1.e. Providing living habitats for many species of the snails (Gastropods), crabs (Decapods), seaweeds, and anemones. Intertidal muddy/sand beaches are home to shrimp, sand hoppers, snails, and worms buried below the surfaces. The outcrops of peat along the shoreline provide an ideal habitat for the piddocks and burrowing clams.
The importance of these protected zones is that they are part of a UK / international conservation of protected sites. Conservation within these areas provides a turnkey development ensuring that the policies protect rare and diverse species along with their habitats. In conclusion, Allonby has a dedicated marine reef which enriches the rewilding of the honeycomb worm reefs. Sand tubes from the worms build the worm-like structure. These can be in the region of many meters wide. A reef development is a home for other species like the anemones and snails. Crabs and Seaweed (macroalgae) often dominate them. The human role within these zones as seen in Appendices 1.f, shows the large, diverse uses and controls we have put in place within the UK Shores. These help us protect and regulate the zones ensuring that the species and habitats can continue to thrive. Land Use Consultants (2010)
The marine reefs protected from tides hold back many of the waves in tidal storms. Human interaction and the development of Shoreline Management Plans (SMP’s) allow the natural enhancement of the conservation within this area. The maintenance of existing sea defences and reinforcement of these in the designated flood areas. The infrastructure of the marine ecology governed by management policies for cultural and national interests. The dunes and heathland also fall under the conservation area with continued preservation of the salt plains. Land Use Consultants (2010)
The fields inland from Allonby beach consist of undulating arable land of glacial till. Across the topography, there is small winding becks and flood defences infrastructure. Farmland becomes a natural community along the coastal region. Tall hedge banks and woodland separate the connection from the coastline to the land. The formation of kests is evident as we can see the distinctive ditches and hedgerows. Cultural, historical features begin to emerge from the roman outlets along the coastline. Land Use Consultants (2010)
Land Use Consultants (2010) further identified developments with the renewable industry towards offshore wind farms would have a human effect upon Allonby. Changing the local farming industry and inhibit the AONB's skyline views of the beaches. Climate changes are an increased risk for the conservation zone by rising sea levels and storm flooding/damages. Directly impacting the coastal heath and causing further widespread erosion and flooding. Taking these views in a serious nature, a Management Plan is now in force for the NW Coastline Protecting the ANOB's landscape characteristics.
Across the bay, large numbers of birds ranging from waders (Charadriiforms) which are live near shorelines) and gulls (Larus canus). Across the pebble patched areas, mussel beds and reefs support the feeding waders and wildlife. The dunes provide sustained ecological interest and biodiversity. Typical flora includes: pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis), clovers (Trifolium), pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis), lady’s bedstraw Galium verum), kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria) and carline thistle (Common biennial plant). Collins. (2012). As seen in Appendices 1g. Soil & Land Geology Data Allonby North – South. Allonby was formed 252 million years ago in the Triassic Period. The detailed soil and land strata are quite comprehensive showing sedimentary deposits form the Glacial melts.
Banks et. Al. (2009), detailed annual research into the common gulls and migrating species form Europe. As a protected site, further studies show the resident birds do inter breed with the argenteus populations that enter the area. The common gull seen extensively around the shorelines is a Category 2 species. Protected as a European Conservation Concern. Meanwhile, further studies have shown that black headed gulls are frequently arriving along the shores. Wintering birds are commonly noted within Gull Surveys. In conclusion, the conservation of Allonby is of high significance to the future of protecting the migratory and localised species. Many of these are now seen in decline such as the common gull. Nearly 4 million gulls migrate to the UK. With protected zones in pace we can continue to preserve and protect the listed areas under the protected zones. The outlook for conservation will be monitored within the protected zone especially where Sellafield has caused some considerable decline of the mussel shell populations. As indicated by there is a significand decrease due to radiocarbons.
Historical Haaf netting continues along this coastline as the traditional netting lands returning salmon (and sea trout (. Along the beach you will find many marine shells of the bivalve molluscs. These are washed up during the tidal changes. At low tide they are located by their slight depressions within the sand. Common gulls (Collins, (2012).
Assets Publishing Service (2016) Available at
https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/492326/mcz-allonby-bay-factsheet.pdf(Accessed: 10 November 2018).
BLACK, J.H. and BARKER, J.A., (2016). ‘The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution’. Hydrogeology Journal, 24(2), pp. 439-457. Available at: https://search.proquest.com/docview/1771061823?accountid=14089&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo (Accessed: 04 December 2018).
Collins (2012) Complete guide to British Coastal Wildlife. Wiltshire: D & N Publishing.
David E Smith et al. (2003) ‘Holocene relative sea-level change in the lower Nith valley and estuary’. Scottish Journal of Geology 39, (2), 97–120. Available at: http://sjg.lyellcollection.org/content/39/2/97 (Accessed: 09 December 2018).
Davis, R.V. (1977) Geology of Cumbria. Whitehaven: Geo Todd & Son.
Geology of Britain Viewer (2018) Available at http://mapapps.bgs.ac.uk/geologyofbritain/home.html(Accessed: 03 December 2018).
Huggett R (2011) Fundamentals of Geomorphology 3rd ed. London: Routledge.
Hunter, A and Easterbrook, G. (2009) The geological history of the British Isles.: Milton Kenes Mk7 6AA: The Open University.
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Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2016) Available at http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-2409 (Accessed: 30 November 2018).
Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2016) Available at
http://jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-4527(Accessed:24 November 2018).
Land Use Consultants (2010) Available at: http://www.solwaycoastaonb.org.uk/documents/LSCA-AONB.pdf (Accessed 08 December 2018).
Niall, H.K. Burton., Alexander N. Banks., John R. Calladine & Graham E. Austin. (2013) ‘The importance of the United Kingdom for wintering gulls: population estimates and conservation requirements’, Bird Study, Vol.60, p.87. Available at: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00063657.2012.748716 (Accessed 03 December 2018).
Photograph 1a. Martin Pullan (2018). [Own Work]
Quirk, Dave. (1999) ‘Geology of the west Cumbria district. Memoir for 1:50 000 geological sheets 28 Whitehaven, 37 Gosforth and 47 Bootle (England and Wales)’, Geological magazine, Vol.136(4), pp.477-478. Available at: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/geological-magazine/article/akhurst-m-c-chadwick-r-a-holliday-d-w-mccormac-m-mcmillan-a-a-millward-d-young-b-1997-geology-of-the-west-cumbria-district-memoir-for-1ratio-50-000-geological-sheets-28-whitehaven-37-gosforth-and-47-bootle-england-and-wales-x-138-pp-keyworth-british-geological-survey-price-3500-paperback-isbn-0-85272-300-8/2572D70D80E63D38200FBE1170F7F9AF/core-reader (Accessed 18 November 2018).
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Roe (Doe) Deer
Today's adventure was to utislize the local fog to seek out wildlife around the Old Viaduct over the River Eden. The swirling damp mist was giving me some needed cover as I carefully tracked along the top of the viaduct tunnel. Slowly looking around like a chameleon, I passed my usual lookout point from yesterdays visit. The air was full of a beautiful dawn chorus from the local blue tits and sparrows. Venturing off my general ground within the baron habitats, I edged slowly along Davidson's Banks. Safety was a concern today with the very muddy ground which made tracking difficult along the leaves. Taking a few tumbles along the way, I decided to head inward toward Knockupworth Gill. The environment was more comfortable and less slippery as I searched around for deer. There was plenty of tracks along the fence and edgeways of the adjacent field. The fog was getting much thicker so I backtracked down towards the River Eden and crossed the Old Wooden Bridge. From here I decided to follow the lower woodland adjacent to Knockupworth Gill. The ground was poor and slippy as I slowly made my way downstream towards the A689 Bridge. Scanning the area ahead through the lens I noticed a small roe deer laid down on the edge of the River Eden. Placing my camera on the silent mode, I took a picture to check the settings. I was quite amazed that the roe deer hadn't yet noticed me. Time passed me by as I watched the deer for over half an hour before I decided to get a little closer. I was moving along the ground on my knees before lying entirely down to take a few more pictures. The deer looked up towards me and remained laid on the river bank. I was rather curious as it's behavior, they usually don't like my aftershave and flee rather quickly. Edging very slowly forward, I decided not to go any closer as I didn't want to disturb the deer. Backing off slowly from its gaze, I made my way up the hill to the fields at the top. Somewhat concerned that the deer hadn't moved I made contact with a local wildlife rescue center. After a discussion, the roe deer was a female (doe). As she is remaining laid down, it was to protect her young nearby. They are known locally in this area, and my decision to back off was the right one. There I was stood in the field slightly wet, and muddy; I decided to call it for today and head back towards Carlisle.
The early morning light casts its rays through the enchanted woodland. Walking across the frosty ground in search for the spirit of nature, I notice two ladybirds on the frosted branch. Carefully looking around for the deer, the beautiful colours scattered all around so early in the morning. I am free with nature, as I cross the quiet grounds to my favorite observation landmark. With no deer sightings today, I ventured onwards down the long old wooden steps leading to the River Eden. It's here, the right time, the right place, an otter gracefully swimming around. ( Images were taken using HDR )
Herons of the Night
Kissed by an Otter
The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Clark, C. E. (2017).
The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Clark, C. E. (2017).
The artifact represents globalization and culture issues that developed after the war in 1945. Street photography was at the heart of worldwide scrutiny and political outrage from the rights over images. The dissemination behind this powerful image has led to the regulation of media artifacts that we have today. The global culture of photography is now a major part of our everyday media. Clark, C. E. (2017). The dissemination behind this powerful image has led to the regulation of media artifacts that we have today. The global culture of photography is now a major part of our everyday media. Clark, C. E. (2017). Early photographers always take 2 images, retain one and the other was published. Image 1 was published in April 1953.
Catherine E. Clarke a professor of french studies published many articles surrounding the history of France and its globalization of photography. With a Genre of Street Photography certainly prompted political propaganda. Who has the rights over the images was certainly under large scrutiny? The dissemination of the artifacts was debated by French law and changes within the cultural representations and rights to ownership of artifacts. Gendreau, (1999).
The political debate extended for many years and the courts would favor an artistic artifact over an industrial one. Nesbit, (1987). In conclusion of both the authors on the artifact rights was largely debated in court and rather bias towards the street photographers the image rights and ownership are implicit to the artefact. Images that were artistic were aloud rather than industrial ones. There were certainly some bias political motives behind the court decisions.
The plot has continued over the years with hostility clearly demonstrated within the courts towards photography on the street. Regulations regarding the use of artifacts have changed globally with cultural impacts. Barbas, (2015). The artifact Fig 1 is "a linear narrative" as it shows the historical conflict surrounding the use of street photography. The artefact is referenced in many media contexts over many years with distinctive flashbacks to the rights over an artifact.
What is striking about the media artefact is that it shows vernacular photography. From the post war period showing everyday life. As we can see it’s a black and white artifact common for this era which changed to. The artifact shows a paparazzi style image showing a lady walking down the street. With no expression, possibly without her consent. The artifact is embraced within the frame which is typical for this type of genre.
In conclusion, the laws have changed regarding the rights of images. Early French Law has shown the political uproar towards image rights. Since 1999, the new rulings have globally favored the rights to ownership as long as they could prove the artifact is indeed artistic or commercial. Giving the way for paparazzi-style photography that we see so much of today. Globally, photography is now a very powerful media representation and continues to be scrutinized within the nations.
Batchen G (2009) Seeing and saying: A response to ‘Incongruous Images’. History and Theory 48(4): 26–33.
Clark, C. E. (2017) The Commercial Street Photographer: The Right to the Street and the Droit à l’Image in Post-1945 France. Journal of Visual Culture, 16(2), 225–252. Available at: https://doi.org/10.1177/1470412917716482 (Accessed 24 Nov. 2018).
Figure 1. Anonymous, dated 17 April 1953. 13.9 by 8.9cm. Image courtesy of Seconde Vague Productions, Marseille.
Gendreau, Y. (1999) France. In: Gendreau Y, Nordemann A, Oesch R (eds) Copyright and Photographs: An International Survey. London: Kluwer Law International, 117–33.
Nesbit M (1987) What was an author? Yale French Studies 73: 229–57.
Martins struggle to film an Otter on the River Eden. Day one commenced with gathering all the photographic equipment for the project. Outdoor filmmaking requires all material to be checked and in working order. The leading protagonist Martin Pullan is a Wildlife Media Undergraduate studying at the University of Cumbria. Martins goal is to put into practice researched fieldcraft techniques. The outcome is to meet the second protagonist the otter. Research identifies how to track an otter from footprints and spraint which the mammal leaves behind. Day 2 commenced with a long 8k walk along the river bank seeking out signs of otter tracks. The evening draws near with no signs of the otter along this part of the Eden. Day 3 started with Martin meeting an expert Cain Scrimgeour to seek out any further advice. Consultation leads to new research in the campus library. An early start to Day 4 with a new location further down the Eden. Despite the fact of the rain and cold weather, tracking was severe along the edge of the river banks. The spirit of the monitoring and imminent threat of no otter on the River Eden, the mood was low. A new location was selected which looked more favorable. Challenging days ahead and perseverance paid off with the sighting of some possible footprints. Lifting the apprehension of otter tracks, consultation with the expert for clarification. An unfavorable outcome and determination to succeed.
Martin set about seeking new areas of the river Eden from further library research. Perseverance pays off from sighting more footprints in a new location near a bridge. Photographic evidence seems to match the presence of an otter.
Further clarification is needed. Spirits are high with a confirmed otter presence. A camera trap was deployed and fixed to the lower part of a tree and camouflaged — excitement and accomplishment of the otter tracks. Returning the following day with anticipation of capturing some otter media, Martin reviews the footage. All hopes dashed there were no recordings of the otter the mood was low. Dark times loomed ahead following daily visits to the site location. No otter captured on the camera trap. Was Martin missing something?
Further research needed to identify the habits of the otter. New tracking was the answer, additional areas identified as more favorable down the Eden. Another camera trap set up looks promising and hopes raised with more tracks left by the otter. Utilising a Nikon D800, PIR Sensor, and Flash Remote, a revised camera trap was set up. Security-minded, a cable to secure equipment used on the nearby tree. The weather was turning with sunshine forecasted. High spirits, determination prevailed to seek out further habitat locations. Early morning walks commenced in more favorable sites along the River Eden. The awakening, is today the day for otter media? With the weather improving and sunshine forecast, it is an 8k walk along the other side of the river. Approaching the camera trap with anticipation, like running downstairs on Christmas morning to opening the presents. Eagerly unlocking the padlock on the camera trap, emotions are high. Glancing over in front of the location to see fresh otter tracks. Surely today is the day of some video media of an otter? Lifting out the camera from the enclosure to review the media. An ecstatic response, we have video media of an otter.
Excellent, an otter in colour stood with its front paws on the tree log in front of the camera trap. All the hard work and perseverance has paid off. Tracking, and walking 28k every week along the River Eden for two months has provided some outstanding media of the otter. Is there anything on here? The camera was pointed out towards the river in the hope of capturing the otter approaching the river bank. Such a delight, long wait and hard work, will we see anything? Hands were shaking whilst opening the case to review the footage on the inbuilt screen of the camera trap. Yes, we have an otter, looking again at the media to see an otter laid on its back looking towards the camera. As the otter floated downstream is it cheekily swimming away. Indeed, the cheeky mammal was enjoying a swim right in front of the camera trap.
Mood, Tone & Genre Narratives
Storyboard & Camera Actions
MDIA3202 Biodiversity and Habitat for Media
The cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) around 80-100cm as seen in the above photograph. Eunis.eea.europa.EU, (2018), details, it has a long neck, with a long bill and streamlined head, an adult, is black with white on the head and legs. A juvenile will be a brownish colour. The wingspan of around 130-160cm, its beak will be yellow and of a hooked shape. The weight of around 2-2.5kg making it quite a large bird something like a goose. Both male and female cormorants are alike, with their white patches on their breasts and white feathers upon their heads. According to King, (2014), In flight, head extended, neck kinked; long, broad tail and wings (Web.b.ebscohost.com, 2018) Further reading identifies both sexes are difficult to distinguish. Utilising typical features such as colour and size have produced a general scope of identification. Avibirds.com, (2018), detailed long-term studies from deceased cormorants have shown a way of identifying the sexes employing statistical analysis. An exciting result of the size population and morphometric data. Ac.els-cdn.com, (2018). Further reading has shown that their behavior can define the sex of the cormorant. Extensive statistical methods have explained the differences within the sizes of the cormorants relative to their sexing. From site visits along the River Eden, there is a noticed difference between the scopes of Cormorants. They are just like humans with size differentials. Morphometric analysis is an adopted tool used to identify many other types of species. Avibirds.com. (2018). In conclusion, statistical mean figures for cormorant males. The study between body mass vs. bill length shows a 15% greater size than the females. Culmen vs. sternum length however only shows a 6% differential. Overall the analysis shows, shows that adults are slightly larger than juveniles.
Cormorants UK identification features distinguished by their markings and colour. Namely, their white patch located on the face along with either an orange/yellow or yellow pouch seen found on the throat. Compared with European or West African species, nbr carbo & nbr sinensis cormorants, they are whitish on the throat with to their underpants and a more speckled dark colouring. Further into the species abroad we now see a more defined yellow patch on the throat. Smaller looking type commonly noted as the Shag (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) which is much darker with a narrower bill with green eyes. Paler brown underpants. Seen nesting on the coastal cliffs of the UK & Ireland. Further research has identified a Double-Crested Cormorant (Auritis) this is a very unusual rare species. Vagrant between the Shag & Cormorant seen with an orange throat patch. In conclusion, the best way to identify these is by looking at the angle of the pouch.
Cormorants have little in the way of enemies. Often hunted by Eagles, who will readily take a young cormorant. Their lifespan is often cut short from the predatory nest invaders such as gulls and crows. Habitats of large overgrown trees line up the River Banks, giving them security and plenty of foraging sites on the opposite bank with the dense foliage and sandy shores. Fisheries have conducted studies to look at fish losses however their reports did not signify an actual direct cause being the cormorant species. According to Kirby, Holmes, and Sellers, (2018), Studies on the cormorants have identified how the species has evolved in numbers, but we have not conducted any research into the loss of cormorants due to fish populations. Research has identified breeding pairs to have increased from 6400 to over 7200 within the UK. Resulting in yearly increases since the introduction of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Past breeding pairs of cormorants have dominated to grow within our landscape and river banks. However, their future habitat remains at risk as fish stocks become endangered. Some biased debates within this issue which give rise to further studies to be carried out. In the case of the River Eden which is subject to regular flooding events. Research indicated the possible use of screening along the river banks. Again, somewhat biased given the increase of eco-security and dominating predators such as crayfish. Draulans, (2018).
Cormorants are a widely recognized bird that has caused such controversy against man, fish stocks, and bird protectors. Research has shown an increasing predator issue. However, there has not been any conclusive studies to show the actual fish losses. Certainly, one for the future and we must balance out the single issues of the bird has caused the problem. With no proof of any effectiveness from netting or the costs of such deterrent available a solution would be to carry out further studies of the fish volumes within our river systems. Fisheries have developed fabricated areas primarily for the protection of fish stocks. Even though this idea would possibly protect, the fish losses results have yet to show that this is a way forward. According to Orpwood et al, (2018), the introduction of reed beds with a cover introduced with some increased results for flourishing fish numbers. By altering the habitat of the rivers to accommodate fish stocks the increase was promising and would give broad spread application for adoption. Nature and man have to certainly compromise with regards to existence and adopt new ways to live alongside each other. Predatory birds need to be monitored as much as the fish stocks to ensure there is harmony within the ecological survival of both. Ac.els-cdn.com, (2018), identified British Cormorants are P.c. Carbo breeds, widely persecuted for the damage they cause to fish stock. With an increase in issues often arising from fisheries managers and anglers seems to be gender biased towards the Cormorant. Protected by Wildlife and Countryside Act 198. Providing detailed information can be proved about their destructive behavior and after other attempts to resolve the issues fail. It is quite a big debate on how these predators are destroying the environment as noted within Ac.els-cdn.com, (2018); however, more attempts are needed to introduce reed beds for fish stocks to thrive away from the diving birds. These have been very successful from the studies carried out so far. Orpwood et al, 2018), noted many fabricated refuges placed within the waterways that were surprisingly a success.
Human use of location
Observations for my project concentrate upon the river Eden, which runs through Carlisle in the North West of Cumbria. Walking around the human-made riverbanks of the River Eden, it is easy to notice the surrounding trees give some tremendous colonial advantages for the cormorant. Providing a bird's eye view of the river below and protection within the trees. Foliage cover and deposited debris from flood waters have given a haven for wildlife along the River Eden. Observations of Cormorants have highlighted that they are often seen here as a pair or in a group of 3. Hunting as a pack, by flying up the River Eden and gracefully entering the water to catch their prey. Following the Cormorant, they continue downstream, diving underwater to catch fish before breaking the surface. They do not venture far from their nesting ground, returning to dry off. The cormorants' biodiversity and its survival have flourished along the River Eden despite controversial media towards the predator being biased. Site visits have shown the cormorants' lifestyle and the effect upon the river and its inhabitants. The cormorant has well established its territory here on the River Eden as the Map suggests. Conclusive research shows that flooding will be significantly detrimental to the future lifespan of the cormorant. Flooding affects fish stocks and water inhabitants. Dispersing them to flooded areas and resulting in a loss of food supplies for wildlife evolution. Has flooding changed the course of the River Eden through Carlisle? The floods which occurred on Saturday 8 January 2005 saw the worst flooding in some areas for 40 years. In Carlisle, around 4,500 residential and commercial properties were affected, located mainly on the floodplain of the River Eden. The River Eden takes much of the run-off water from higher ground to the south, and the weathermen say that approximately two months of rainfall fell in the preceding 24-hour period. Worst Flooding for 40 years. 2005. In the recent issue (Insurance Brokers' Monthly, 2018), detailed, how does the environment affect the predatory cormorant? Since 1770, there have been 137 recorded floods in Carlisle District. Data trending identifies flood areas around the River Eden. However, over this period, types of seasonal and sudden surges have risen to formulate data analysis.
How does the environment affect the predatory cormorant? Since 1770, there have been 137 recorded floods in Carlisle District. Data trending identifies flood areas around the River Eden. However, over this period, types of seasonal and sudden surges have risen to formulate data analysis. Pattison and Lane, (2011). Data obtained from the collected rainfall each year along with flooding before 1990 was in the region of 1183mm. SAAR, (1961–1990). Since this, the Environmental Agency has shown a significant rise within flooding levels up to 2800mm within the River Eden catchment zones. (Environment Agency, 2008). Historical data for flooding stretches back over 240 years. According to Pattison and Lane, (2011). Flooding remains a wipe-out of the Eco security and life cycles of the river ecology. From invasions of crayfish, shrimp, along with Knotweed and hogweed affecting the Eco security Concluding some significant findings of no mention of Cormorants as a direct threat to the Eco-System within UK Rivers. Again, we are seen to be somewhat biased towards the dominant birds as the result of fish losses. Evidence suggests that other species are detrimental to the ecology and these are the risk factors.
New research by Carlisle Angling Association, (2018), showed controversial debates continue as measures are imposed to control risks to Eco-Systems. However, where does this end? What are we trying to cultivate? The ecosystems or the entire biodiversity of the cormorant? Natural wildlife will progress on the Eden, but a further collaboration would be needed to ensure that the environment is looked after with a more scientific approach. According to Hufty, (1968), we can all help towards risk by reporting of hogweed along with sightings of killer predatory invaders such as shrimp. Flood frequency has worsened with cyclonic weather conditions. The outlook from the in-depth data recorded shows an abnormal result in future flooding. For the evolution of the cormorant, this will no doubt affect the breeding habitats along with their sustainability to remain where they are presently situated.
Observations along the River Eden as seen in MAP 1, highlighted the course of the river has changed over the years. One side of the River has been human-made with purpose-built banking to prevent the river from damaging and widening that section. Equally the opposite side has been left to allow the river to meander through Carlisle. Steeper on the right with shallow beds on the left. The River Eden lies on the Jurassic beds which are made up of igneous rocks. The topology of the area it is vast with flat floodplains visible. Recent flooding has damaged the human-made edge of the Eden. Following many site visits along this stretch have shown current work in progress to rebuild the weaken banking. As seen in (Appendices) 30 the river bank is reinforced with reed fencing on a banked area showing the introduction of planted trees and bushes along the lower sections. In time the rewilding effect will introduce wildlife and protect many of the species from its proximity to humans. Noted from a site visit after the flooding, Noted, trees planted in weighted cages along the riverbank. Historically this did not exist as far back as 1921, it was known as the River Eden. The future environmental for this section of the river will undoubtedly change as the flooding, historically is getting worse and will form a much more extensive river bed as it washes away the soft sand and substrates. In conclusion, we are making attempts to keep one side of the Eden from encroaching on the City. At the same time maintaining an environment for the wildlife with introductions of trees and stable riverbanks.
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Insurance Brokers' Monthly Worst Flooding for 40 years (2005) (Accessed 06/04/18).
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Kirby, J, Holmes, J, and Sellers, R. (2018) Cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo as fish predators: An appraisal of their conservation and management in Great Britain. Available at: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006320795000437 (Accessed 05/03/18).
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Martin Pullan (2018) Cormorant Picture 1. [Photograph]. Wigton: Martin Pullan Photography.
Martin Pullan (2018) Cormorant Picture 2 DSC_5851. [Photograph]. Wigton: Martin Pullan Photography.
Martin Pullan (2018) Cormorant Picture 3. DSC_5491.NEF. [Photograph] Wigton: Martin Pullan Photography.
Martin Pullan (2018) River Eden Picture 4. Iphone1. JPG. [Photograph). Wigton: Martin Pullan Photography.
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Pattison, I. and Lane, S. (2011). The relationship between Lamb weather types and long-term changes in flood frequency, River Eden, UK. Available at: http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=d9426885-130f-47bc-a2da-1f37f3e009ef%40pdc-v-sessmgr03&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1laG9zdC1saXZl#AN=82615162&db=eih(2018) (Accessed 26/04/18).
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