What is meant by the term gender - in what ways might the concept of gender be viewed as relevant to your field of study?
According to Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), The basic definition of representation within the media is our how media, such as television, film, and books, portray certain types of people or communities. Some groups are underrepresented in most Western media. They include women, people of colour, people with a range of body shapes and types, people of non-Christian religions, and differently-abled people. There has been a steady increase in diversity in media, but progress has been extended and slow. How we use representation within the media is outlined within its definition. Representation is the way we show everyday events form Film and television, magazines, people, wildlife, and our communities of mixed races. It is a dominant term, and we manipulate it accordingly to show meaning.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Cited:
"Strong and positive representations can help fight and break down stereotypes that can be detrimental to individuals and limiting to society."
Showing that we can inspire people with the way we use media within society. It is the way we see and interpret the representation of the media. Particularly the way we show Western Media and religion as a tool for political motives. An example of this is in the types of magazines available and how they show gender as an everyday tool for storytelling.
Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190), Cited:
‘gender should not be confused with sex: gender is a social construction, whereas sex is biological.’
Analysis of the above statement highlights that sex is a form of gender, however, the definition of gender is the state of being male or female. Our representations of gender in today’s social trends towards females has been passive submissive quite often emotional people. Whereas how we see males, today societies are more active dominant strong and thoughtful. From this, we can now challenge the dominant representations. For us to avoid being subjective in this, we must use a quantitative technique. An excellent example of this is from a is from a magazine called ‘Nuts’ where 170 representations within this magazine were female. This rather explicit magazine is quite dominant with partially naked females. This magazine is therefore aimed at the male population whereas, another magazine called ‘More’ show 86 representations of males. Within this only 10% partially naked. In conclusion, the quantitative technique used to analyse both these magazines highlights how we can challenge such representations within the media. Nick Lacey (2009, p. 190-193).
The purpose of this essay is to argue the above quantitative technique concerning limitation, and it does not give meaning. The difference between the two magazines clearly shows that there are far more topless women represented the male magazine. Analysis of both magazines concludes a clear difference in how we see genders within the media. How male and females are represented within the magazines is quite evident. A male celebrity in one magazine advertising some deodorants he is seen looking directly at the photographer, with an almost frowned expression. However, in the Nuts magazine, there is a picture of a partially naked female who has a lovely smile and head slightly tilted to one side. This is done to draw the male reader to looking closer at the image. Berger (1972).
In conclusion, we can see that the male been represented in this way is almost interrogating the female reader. Compared to the nuts magazine it is showing the male reader that the female is available.
Burger (1972) as cited:
‘characterizes the way genders are represented as opposed to one another.’
Further reading of magazines and advertisements within them you can see routinely that gender is shown according to stereotypes. It’s quite clear to see that women are shown as feminine with a sexual appeal. Males, however, are advertised in situations of dominance.
Dyer, Richard (1993), Argued that women are shown within the media as figures who are less dominant where males were shown to be more powerful and dominant. Within the media, we now see images of women dominantly showing their feminist side. Within a magazine selling products such as perfume, you are more likely to see a model partially naked showing a more sexual side while advertising the perfume. Over the years, we no longer react to the sexism; however, such scenes in public places is ignored. In conclusion, media representation is presented in many ways to capture the audience. In this case of the magazines, we explicitly use gender as a tool to aid the representation and tell a story we want the audience to engage with. Wildlife Media is represented in a typical linear way. YouTube documentary was quite biased towards false representations within the media. The storytelling was not fake, and the wildlife was real, the sound effects make it life like to the audience.
DSLR guide (2018), shows us how representations are manipulated and fake when it comes to wildlife media documentaries. One can argue the point that all wildlife programs recorded in the wild, however, regards to sound audio that we listen to has been generated. This recreation is not fake; it is a more open way of storytelling. By encapsulating the audience, we can show wildlife in their natural habitats without disturbances. In the studio, all documentaries mixed with Foley and ADR sounds to capture the attention of the audience. However, storytelling has been a way of misleading the audience. DSLR guide (2018), Further opens a perception of wildlife misrepresentation. In the documentary, the manipulation is dramatic with the action of the sharks as they have been made to be more violent through feeding. Additional studio sounds added, and we now have a high-octane documentary. It is indeed not fake, and we must tell a story and have the audience engage with the action as it happens. The more dramatic or slow the media is represented, tells the story as we see it unfold.
Concluding that Fake Nature illustrates to the audience the complex issues relating to wildlife representation, and Storytellers are there to bring the scenes together for the audience. They indeed are not fake, and the action is real. One agrees that sometimes we enhance a documentary to be more dramatic rather than showing an everyday scene. Nearly all sounds are added later in the studio by recreating exact perfect frames for the audience. It is true we cannot interfere with live nature; however, we can certainly match the sounds with technology. In return, this captures the eye and attention of the audiences who then follow the series with great anticipation.
As detailed by Digg.com (2018), Wildlife documentaries such as blue planet Earth 2 as shown with a cinematic view. Changes within high definition from HD to ultra HD has now given as the technology to digitize our representations. We can now use camera movements to follow wildlife. In this way, we can now bring real-life images to the viewer. Introducing David Attenborough as a genre overlay brings wildlife documentaries to life. As to as scammers now got smaller and more compact we can now get closer to wildlife and obtain media footage for cinematic representation. Heli gimbals allow us to film animals from a long, long distance away without disturbing their habitat. Now where bringing real-life nature to the screen. Heli gimbals mounted on helicopters with a significant way forward for the BBC. Utilizing Foley and ADR studios we can now re-enhance the sound to match the media that we have captured. Many people argue that this is fake, however, the wildlife is real, but we have the time to overlay the sounds in a more controlled environment without disturbing the wildlife. In conclusion, we now use representation to relate how that wildlife exists in the natural world. Large wildlife hunting in South Africa can now be shown on documentaries bringing reality TV to the viewer. Gimbals also allow us to use hand-held cameras which allow us to improve our cinematic views. Representation is the capture the image and the viewer, emotionally storytelling has now advanced to a new era.
An excellent example by Digg.com (2018), shows how digital cameras for wildlife documentaries Is used to recreate slow motion media. As seen in the planet Earth 2, there was a scene in Ecuador showing hummingbirds. Viewers in the UK considered the media footage is fake and recreated by computer graphics. This was certainly not the case as we use slow motion filmmaking to slow the hummingbirds down. Viewers could now watch real wildlife in a slower format. Planet Earth 2, was recreated to connect with all viewers of all ages. In return, slow-motion filmmaking certainly worked for this documentary representation of flora and fauna and now shown in a way we can never see before in real life. Bringing storytelling into a new era.
Arab Film Institute (2018) Available at:
https://arabfilminstitute.org/what-exactly-is-media-representation-anyway/ (Accessed: 10 Dec 2018).
Berger, J. (1972) Ways of Seeing, London and Harmondsworth: BBC and Penguin. Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/planet-earth-technology (Accessed 12 Dec 2018).
Digg.com (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/slow-motion-planet-earth-nature-documentaries (Accessed 13 Dec 2018).
DSLR guide (2018) Available at: http://digg.com/video/how-fake-are-nature-documentaries (Accessed 1 Dec 2018).
Dyer, Richard (1993) A Matter of Images, London: British Film Institute.
Nick Lacey (2009) Image and representation key concepts in media studies. Hampshire: Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Photograph 1a. Martin Pullan (2018). Showing Allonby Beach and a view of the Scottish Coastline. Intertidal estuary with a Type B2 Character Classification.
Allonby Conservation Area
David, et al. (2003), identified that glacial melts formed the Solway Coast and Allonby which is situated off the Cree/Nith Valleys. The Firth locally at this time was full of gritty/jagged glacial rocks which travelled down from the valleys. Historically around 15,000 years ago the sea level would have been 25 metres higher than present day.
Around 7000 years ago the formation of saltmarshes and extensive mudflats were formed. The Solway narrowed as the topography developed in turn; salt resisting flora, shrubs and trees grew. As the sea level receded alder trees developed within the local area. As the years passed by evidence detailed the arrival of willow, oak, birch and alder trees. David, et al. (2003). Appendicies1b. identifies the receding sea levels from the glacial melts.
Historically, around 5000 years ago, the sea level was 10 feet higher than seen today. The area is of great importance as settlers began to uncover various artefacts detailing the existence of communities near the coastal pathway. Over time the sea level has now dropped to its present level. Appendices 1c. Environmental changes have further changed the local area with pebbles, and sediments deposited from the estuary. Many of the Solway Ports require regular dredging of the mud accumulations. On the beach, there are a vast array of coloured pebbles in various sizes. Allonby bay has significant granular granite (Felsic igneous) rocks surrounded by slate from Skiddaw (Metamorphosed sedimentary rock from the Early Ordovician period). Other rock types include Siliceous rocks (igneous), sandstone (sedimentary), and feldspar. David, et al. (2003).
Typically, the rocks located in Allonby are of a typical classification, igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary. They come from the mountain regions of the Lake District. Davis, R. V. (1977, p5-7) Further data about this is detailed in appendices 1g, Tables showing the geological data of Allonby Bay. Allenby beach also contains further outcrops of metamorphic, sedimentary and volcanic rocks. Meltwaters of the valleys gradually ground the moving rocks. The sand, silt and pebbles are a mix of sedimentary, metamorphic and volcanic rock. Gravel banks contain various named stones ranging from Nellie, Maston, Pintle and a locally named Hanging Stone. These high deposits are seen scattered along the beach. David, et al. (2003).
Allonby is of a high conservation interest with many types of species located within the area. The role of the protection zone is to protect the area and its marine wildlife. The beach is made up of intertidal sand/mud flats providing ideal habitats for razor clams (Solenidae), piddocks (Pholadidae), shrimp (Caridea), worms (Acanthocephala) and sea snails (Gastropoda). Collins. (2012). According to Land Use Consultants (2010) there is a historic conservation order dating back to 1956, it was classed as an area of natural beauty (AONB). This AONB runs along the raised beaches and intertidal flats up to the Outer Solway Firth. Land Use Consultants (2010)
This seascape estuary is classed within category Type A as it is closer to the sea. With its capsular land masses of mud/sand composition. Running alongside the beach, are the see the dunes and saltmarshes. Extensive wave erosion is evident in this area. Dense pebble strata are noted along the cliff habitats. The seaward edge has a classification of subtype 1a, Intertidal Flats. Appendices 1d.
Land Use Consultants (2010) further highlights Allonby beach AONB, has an extensive estuarine ecosystem ranging from sand/silt composition and vast areas of intertidal flats. High tides cause erosion cycles and deposition of pebbles and waste material from the Irish sea. Most of the mudflats are exposed depending on the tidal path. To the edges of the beach, exist vast landscapes of acidic dune heaths with heather. Allonby Bay is also under a Marine Conservation Zone and protected under government policy.
Policies are in place to ensure the area is safe, healthy and clean. Allonby Bay is of significant interest with the honeycomb worm and mussel beds. The living reef is formed by long sand tubes constructed by the worms. Appendices 1.e. Providing living habitats for many species of the snails (Gastropods), crabs (Decapods), seaweeds, and anemones. Intertidal muddy/sand beaches are home to shrimp, sand hoppers, snails, and worms buried below the surfaces. The outcrops of peat along the shoreline provide an ideal habitat for the piddocks and burrowing clams.
The importance of these protected zones is that they are part of a UK / international conservation of protected sites. Conservation within these areas provides a turnkey development ensuring that the policies protect rare and diverse species along with their habitats. In conclusion, Allonby has a dedicated marine reef which enriches the rewilding of the honeycomb worm reefs. Sand tubes from the worms build the worm-like structure. These can be in the region of many meters wide. A reef development is a home for other species like the anemones and snails. Crabs and Seaweed (macroalgae) often dominate them. The human role within these zones as seen in Appendices 1.f, shows the large, diverse uses and controls we have put in place within the UK Shores. These help us protect and regulate the zones ensuring that the species and habitats can continue to thrive. Land Use Consultants (2010)
The marine reefs protected from tides hold back many of the waves in tidal storms. Human interaction and the development of Shoreline Management Plans (SMP’s) allow the natural enhancement of the conservation within this area. The maintenance of existing sea defences and reinforcement of these in the designated flood areas. The infrastructure of the marine ecology governed by management policies for cultural and national interests. The dunes and heathland also fall under the conservation area with continued preservation of the salt plains. Land Use Consultants (2010)
The fields inland from Allonby beach consist of undulating arable land of glacial till. Across the topography, there is small winding becks and flood defences infrastructure. Farmland becomes a natural community along the coastal region. Tall hedge banks and woodland separate the connection from the coastline to the land. The formation of kests is evident as we can see the distinctive ditches and hedgerows. Cultural, historical features begin to emerge from the roman outlets along the coastline. Land Use Consultants (2010)
Land Use Consultants (2010) further identified developments with the renewable industry towards offshore wind farms would have a human effect upon Allonby. Changing the local farming industry and inhibit the AONB's skyline views of the beaches. Climate changes are an increased risk for the conservation zone by rising sea levels and storm flooding/damages. Directly impacting the coastal heath and causing further widespread erosion and flooding. Taking these views in a serious nature, a Management Plan is now in force for the NW Coastline Protecting the ANOB's landscape characteristics.
Across the bay, large numbers of birds ranging from waders (Charadriiforms) which are live near shorelines) and gulls (Larus canus). Across the pebble patched areas, mussel beds and reefs support the feeding waders and wildlife. The dunes provide sustained ecological interest and biodiversity. Typical flora includes: pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis), clovers (Trifolium), pyramidal orchid (Anacamptis pyramidalis), lady’s bedstraw Galium verum), kidney vetch (Anthyllis vulneraria) and carline thistle (Common biennial plant). Collins. (2012). As seen in Appendices 1g. Soil & Land Geology Data Allonby North – South. Allonby was formed 252 million years ago in the Triassic Period. The detailed soil and land strata are quite comprehensive showing sedimentary deposits form the Glacial melts.
Banks et. Al. (2009), detailed annual research into the common gulls and migrating species form Europe. As a protected site, further studies show the resident birds do inter breed with the argenteus populations that enter the area. The common gull seen extensively around the shorelines is a Category 2 species. Protected as a European Conservation Concern. Meanwhile, further studies have shown that black headed gulls are frequently arriving along the shores. Wintering birds are commonly noted within Gull Surveys. In conclusion, the conservation of Allonby is of high significance to the future of protecting the migratory and localised species. Many of these are now seen in decline such as the common gull. Nearly 4 million gulls migrate to the UK. With protected zones in pace we can continue to preserve and protect the listed areas under the protected zones. The outlook for conservation will be monitored within the protected zone especially where Sellafield has caused some considerable decline of the mussel shell populations. As indicated by there is a significand decrease due to radiocarbons.
Historical Haaf netting continues along this coastline as the traditional netting lands returning salmon (and sea trout (. Along the beach you will find many marine shells of the bivalve molluscs. These are washed up during the tidal changes. At low tide they are located by their slight depressions within the sand. Common gulls (Collins, (2012).
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Photograph 1a. Martin Pullan (2018). [Own Work]
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Roe (Doe) Deer
Today's adventure was to utislize the local fog to seek out wildlife around the Old Viaduct over the River Eden. The swirling damp mist was giving me some needed cover as I carefully tracked along the top of the viaduct tunnel. Slowly looking around like a chameleon, I passed my usual lookout point from yesterdays visit. The air was full of a beautiful dawn chorus from the local blue tits and sparrows. Venturing off my general ground within the baron habitats, I edged slowly along Davidson's Banks. Safety was a concern today with the very muddy ground which made tracking difficult along the leaves. Taking a few tumbles along the way, I decided to head inward toward Knockupworth Gill. The environment was more comfortable and less slippery as I searched around for deer. There was plenty of tracks along the fence and edgeways of the adjacent field. The fog was getting much thicker so I backtracked down towards the River Eden and crossed the Old Wooden Bridge. From here I decided to follow the lower woodland adjacent to Knockupworth Gill. The ground was poor and slippy as I slowly made my way downstream towards the A689 Bridge. Scanning the area ahead through the lens I noticed a small roe deer laid down on the edge of the River Eden. Placing my camera on the silent mode, I took a picture to check the settings. I was quite amazed that the roe deer hadn't yet noticed me. Time passed me by as I watched the deer for over half an hour before I decided to get a little closer. I was moving along the ground on my knees before lying entirely down to take a few more pictures. The deer looked up towards me and remained laid on the river bank. I was rather curious as it's behavior, they usually don't like my aftershave and flee rather quickly. Edging very slowly forward, I decided not to go any closer as I didn't want to disturb the deer. Backing off slowly from its gaze, I made my way up the hill to the fields at the top. Somewhat concerned that the deer hadn't moved I made contact with a local wildlife rescue center. After a discussion, the roe deer was a female (doe). As she is remaining laid down, it was to protect her young nearby. They are known locally in this area, and my decision to back off was the right one. There I was stood in the field slightly wet, and muddy; I decided to call it for today and head back towards Carlisle.
The early morning light casts its rays through the enchanted woodland. Walking across the frosty ground in search for the spirit of nature, I notice two ladybirds on the frosted branch. Carefully looking around for the deer, the beautiful colours scattered all around so early in the morning. I am free with nature, as I cross the quiet grounds to my favorite observation landmark. With no deer sightings today, I ventured onwards down the long old wooden steps leading to the River Eden. It's here, the right time, the right place, an otter gracefully swimming around. ( Images were taken using HDR )
Herons of the Night
Kissed by an Otter
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.